Doctors are not sure about the cause of lymphoma. Lymphoma is a type of cancer that begins in lymphocytes (T cells or B cells). Those are white blood cells- a part of immune system fighting against diseases. In lymphoma, there are abnormal number of lymphocytes in lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels and other organs of body.
Lymphoma is the cancer of lymphatic system which is the germ-fighting network of body.
Lymphatic system includes the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus and bone marrow. Lymphoma may affect all these and other body organs.
There are many types of lymphoma. Basic categories are as follows:
The best treatment option depends on the type and severity of lymphoma. Treatment may include chemotherapy, immunotherapy drugs, radiation therapy or bone marrow transplant.
Signs and symptoms of lymphoma include the following:
Doctors are not sure about the cause of lymphoma.
Lymphoma occurs when genetic code of a white blood cell fighting against diseases, namely lymphocyte, develops a mutation. This mutation triggers the cell to multiply fast and causes the existence of many diseased lymphocytes that continue multiplying.
Mutations also ensure that those cells continue living while others die. This leads to presence of too many diseased and ineffective lymphocytes in lymph nodes and swelling in lymph nodes.
Factors increasing risk of lymphoma include the following:
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of cancer in blood and bone marrow –which is the spongy tissue inside the bones-.
The term “chronic” in chronic lymphocytic leukemia is used because it progresses slowly than the other leukemia types. The term “lymphocytic” in chronic lymphocytic leukemia refers to the cells affected by the disease- a group of white blood cell which helps your body to fight against infection.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia most commonly affects the elders. There are treatments that help controlling this disease.
Signs of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia:
Many people with chronic lymphocytic leukemia do not show any sign at early stage. Individuals developing signs and symptoms may experience the following:
Causes of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia:
Doctors are not sure about the factors that start the process leading to chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Doctors are aware of the fact that there is something that causes a genetic mutation in DNA of blood producing cells. This mutation makes the blood cells produce abnormal, ineffective lymphocytes – a type of white blood cell that helps the body fight against infection-.
Those abnormal lymphocytes not only are ineffective but they also continue living and multiplying after the normal lymphocytes die. The abnormal lymphocytes accumulate in blood and specific organs and lead to complications. They may push the healthy cells outside the bone marrow and affect normal blood cell production.
Doctors and researches work to understand the certain mechanism causing chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Factors that can increase the risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia include the following:
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia may cause complications such as the following:
How is lymphoma diagnosed?
Bone Marrow Biopsy:
Tests and procedures for diagnosing lymphoma include the following:
Treatment choices for lymphoma depend on the type, degree of aggression and your treatment targets.
Treatments include the following:
Non-melanoma Skin Cancer:
Cutaneous B-cell lymphoma is a rare cancer type which occurs in white blood cells and attacks to skin. Cutaneous B-cell lymphoma starts in B-cells –a type of white blood cells fighting against diseases called lymphocytes-.
Types of cutaneous B-cell lymphoma are as follows:
Cutaneous B-cell lymphoma may develop as a subcutaneous nodule which can have the same color with your skin or can be pink or purple.
Cutaneous B-cell Lymphoma Diagnosis:
Tests and procedures for diagnosing cutaneous B-cell lymphoma include the following:
Treatment of cutaneous B-cell lymphoma depends of the type of your lymphoma.
Treatment options may include the following:
Cutaneous T- cell Lymphoma :
Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma is a rare cancer type which occurs in white blood cells and attacks to skin. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma is one of the several lymphoma types which are jointly called as non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma can cause rash-like redness and sometimes skin tumors. Treatments may include skin creams, light therapy, drugs and radiation therapy.
Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma has several types including mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome.
Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (Hodgkin's disease):
Parts of immune system:
Hodgkin’s lymphoma, which was formerly known as Hodgkin’s disease, is the cancer of lymphatic system which is a part of your immune system.
In Hodgkin’s lymphoma, cells of lymphatic system grow abnormally and can spread beyond the lymphatic system. As Hodgkin’s lymphoma grows, it impairs the ability of body to fight against infection.
Hodgkin’s lymphoma is one of the most common cancer types of lymphatic system. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, which is the other type, is much more common.
Advancements in diagnosis and treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma have helped the individuals with this diagnosis heal completely. Improvement of prognosis is continuing for individuals with diagnosis of Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a type of cancer that originates from your lymphatic system fighting against diseases spreading your whole body. In non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, tumors develop from lymphocytes –a type of white blood cell-.
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is much more common comparing to Hodgkin’s lymphoma which is the other general type of lymphoma.
There are many subtypes of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma are among the common subtypes of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia is a rare cancer type that starts in white blood cells.
If you have Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, your bone marrow produces too many abnormal white blood cells that they exceed the healthy blood cells in number. Abnormal white blood cells produce a type of protein that accumulates in blood, impairs the circulation and causes complications.
Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia is considered a type of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Sometimes, it is called as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma.
Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia grows slowly and it may not cause any sign or symptom for years.
When this condition occurs, signs and symptoms may include:
Causes of Waldensrom macroglobulinemia are not known for sure.
Doctors know that the disease starts with an abnormal white blood cell that causes errors (mutations) in genetic code. Those errors make the cell continue multiplying fast.
As the cancer cells do not grow and die like normal cells, they accumulate in body and they finally dominate the production of healthy cells. Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia removes the healthy blood cells from bone marrow which produces blood and fills the centers of many of your bones.
Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia cells continue trying to produce antibody as the healthy white blood cells do; however, they produce abnormal proteins that are not used by the body. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) protein accumulates in blood, impairs the circulation and causes complications.
Factors that can increase the risk of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia include the following: